ceived as a model of the World. The former consisted ol a mas 
sive half-gl'obe (anda, or "vault of heaven") set on one, or on 
several, plafforms; fhe inferior of fhe half-globe guarded fhe 
relics, and if was surmounfed by a multiple sunshade (chhattra- 
vali, "heaven") enclosed by a sfone fence or a litfle house 
(harmika, "world mountain"). This Stupa was enclosed by a 
sfone fence (vedika), consisfing of columns (thaba), coping stones 
(ushnisha) and cross-bars (suci), with gates (torana) and lion 
pillars (stambha) at the four Cardinal points of the compass. The 
Stupa was later set upon a pyramid-shaped or tower-like base 
and finished in an obelisklike chhatfravali. The Hindu temple, 
however, grew from a simple Cella to a shrine (garbhagriha) set 
on a high terrace (medhi), enclosed by a circular walk (pradak- 
shinapatha); fhe shrine's base (sitha) resembied a sacrificial altar, 
while its tower-like upper strucfure (sikhara) was to symbolise 
fhe World mountain Meru. The Buddhists had of course mona- 
sleries (vihara) and assembly halls for the monks (caifyashala), 
and the Hindu temples added to fhe shrine itself various religious 
halls (vimana, mandapa, ardhamandapa, etc.) as well as smaller 
chapels and monasteries (math). The Community, however, 
assembied in the courtyards surrounding these buildings; halls 
for the common believers only appeared in the Mohammedan 
period. Finally, the Mohammedan mosques (masjid) were either 
open or covered prayer-halls; in addition, the Mohammedans 
introduced the capacious domed mausoleum (gumbad, maqbara). 
The earliest architecture of the "Indus" culture is quite simple; 
plain (but once probably painted) walls, overlapping vaults, 
wooden pillars and beams. The early Aryan period built in tim- 
ber and clay with ribbed vaulting resting on arches and circular 
Windows; we know this architecture, of course, only from its imi- 
fafed form in cliff temples and monasferies or from Stupa reliefs. 
From about the sixth Century B. C. Ihese buildings were set on 
sfone platforms; in the last half of the first Ihousand years B. C. 
the timber architecture was displaced by sfonework and brick- 
work with stone pillars, beams and slab roofs; cave temples, 
however, were common until the eighth to eleventh Century, and 
timber-built private houses are still common to-day. Only in Is- 
lamic times did genuine arches, vaulting and domes appear, 
leading fo a complete change in archilectural planning. 
All these buildings were richly decorated with sculptures and 
painting. The Stupa fences and walls were covered with reliefs 
depicting scenes from fhe mythical life (Jafaka) and the mythical 
life of Buddha (Cat. 107—110), the Toranas showed figures of 
lower protector-gods or vedic gods. Later came chapels with 
stafues of fhe Indian and heavenly Buddhas, of the Bodhisattvas 
(aspirant fo the status of Buddha, saviour), of the Madonna Tara 
and finally of terrible protecfor gods and magic gods as well. 
The base of the temple was decorated with friezes o( demons 
(Kirftimukha), animals and scenes from human life. The walls were 
covered wifh figures of various gods (Cat. 225), those of the great 
gods in chapels projecting from the walls, those of the guardians 
of the heavenly regions (Dikpala) on consoles between, all sur- 
rounded by hosts of captivating heavenly nymphs (Apsaros, 
Surasundari). In the interior as well, chapel niches covered the 
walls while nymphs covered fhe pillars and beams. The entry to 
fhe Holy of Hohes was surrounded by other protecfor gods 
(Dvarapala) and figures bearing offerings with their following of 
women waving fans (Camari-bearers or Cauri-bearers), the planet 
gods (Navagraha), lovers (Mithuna, Dampati), and heavenly 
musicians (Gandharva and Kimnari). Palaces were decorated 
with similar figures, but wifh only a few gods as protectors ol the 
house, particularly Sri-Lakshmi (Goddess of good fortune, wealth 
and beaufy), Ganesha (remover ol all dilficulties), Durga (the 
same as Kota-Devi, the castle goddess), Krishna with his beloved 
Radha (the divine lovers), pairs ol lovers, Apsaras and Gand- 
harvas, female dancers and Symbols of good fortune (swans- 
Hamsa), water-vessels and llower-pots (purnakalasha), lotus flowers 
(padma), flowered vines (kalpalata), Svastikas, girls under trees 
(Vrikshaka, Salabhanjika, etc.); or of power (lion-simha), elephant 
(gaja), crocodile (makara) and fantaslic figures such as fhe 
vyalis. Certain struclural features were also richly decorated. The 
pillars, at first square posfs or round shafts sfanding in clay pols, 
soon developed into complicated structures, proceeding from 
four-, eight- or sixfeen-sided posfs and round shafts; crowned by 
"cushions” or "bells", then by flower-pot capitals; swalhed in 
strings of pearls and flowered vines, surmounfed by groups ol 
riders, pairs of lovers or flying gods; finally miniature fowers 
with nymphs dancing in the different floors; or columns dissolving 
among miniature pillars, prancing lions and elephants, riders and 
many other reliefs. To the same degree fhe beams were arranged 
as miniature houses and chapels, the cornices as sun-roofs 
bearing similar houses, the roof-space as storied towers on the 
same litfle houses, as domes, as rool Windows, all covered wilh 
figures. Islamic art, however, covered walls, rool, pillars, arches 
and domes wilh mulli-coloured geometric Ornaments and ara- 
besques, painfed, cut out of sfucco or pieced logether from


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