MAK
super-projeclion of numerous pairs of normal arms. This multipli- 
cation again allowed the gods to be given various faces, various 
crowns and many emblems (ayudha) at the same time. These 
emblems were in their turn an expression of the background 
of theology, e. g. the club as a symbol of physical strength, the 
lotus representing biological life, the conch-shell representing 
Sound, ether and space, the flywheel representing time, the 
wreath of roses representing meditation, the mirror for beauty, 
the butter-spoon for sacrifice, weapons for destruction, and so on. 
Finally, each god or goddess had his or her own sacred animal, 
Siva the bull, Parvati the tiger, Ganesha the rat, Karttikeya and 
Sarasvati the peacock, Vishnu the eagle, Lakshmi and Indra the 
elephant, and many others. 
Types of Gods 
This detaiied symbolism proved necessary because of the nu 
merous forms in which even the great gods appeared and the 
various parts which they played in the mutually competitive 
Systems ot theology. Their number is so great that only a few 
of the most important can be given here. In many cases their 
names are self-explanatory. 
A. LOWER NATURE AND FERTILITY GODS; Yakshas and Yakshis 
(roughly comparable with the Baals and Ashtharoths of the Bible, 
dwarfs and elves; especially Kubera, Pancika and Hariti; Vriksha- 
kas (dryads, Cat. 213), Nagas (snakes, nymphs), Rakshasas (giants), 
Asuras (mythological giants), Apsaras (river goddesses, heavenly 
nymphs), especially Ganga (Ganges), Yamuna (Jumna) and 
Sarasvati (also goddess of art and Science), Gandharvas, Kim- 
naras and others (heavenly musicians), Rishis (holy, better: 
powerful medicine-men), Ganas, Bhutas, Pretas, Pishachas, Veta- 
las (ghosts). 
B. GODS OF THE VEDIC ARYAS: Indra-Sakra (heavenly god), 
Brahma (god of sacrifice), the Dikpalas (keepers of the worid); 
Soma (moon), Ishana (the same as Siva), Indra, Agni (fire), Yama 
(death), Virupaksha (Siva), Varuna (water), Vayu (wind), finally 
Surya (sun). 
C. BUDDHISM: The Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama, about 560 to 
482 B. C.i Cat. 136; 159), his mother Maya, his son, later the 
original Buddha (Vajrasattva), the five Dhyani Buddhas, their 
Dhyani-Bodhisattvas and Prajnas, the seven earthly Buddhas, the 
Bodhisattvas (redeemers), especially Avalokitesvara, Maitreya 
and Manjusri, the goddesses Tara (in various forms), Prajnapara- 
mita (highest wisdom), Marici ("the heavenly Queen”), the 
Dharmapalas (terrible protectors of the faith) and Lokapalas (the 
same as the Hindu Dikpalas). 
D. JAINISM: 24 Tirthankaras or Jinas (cosmological teachers), 
especially Rishabhanatha, Santinatha, Neminatha, Parsvanatha 
and Vardhamana-Mahavira (about 555—480 B. C.), each of them 
accompanied by a Yaksha and a Yakshi (Cat. 205; 206); of the 
latter, the most important is Ambika (mother), with her lion. 
E. SAIVISM (SIVAISM); MAHADEVA OR MAHESVARA (THE 
GREAT GOD OR LORD): Sadasiva, Mahesha-Murti, Jagesvara 
(Lord of the World), Nataraja (King of the [Tandava] dance; 
Cat. 283; 284); Ardhanarisvara (the Lord who is half a woman), 
Hari-Hara (Vishnu-Siva), Siva (the mercifui), Shamkara, Candra- 
shekhara (wreathed by the moon), Girisha (the Lord of the 
Mountains), Gangadhara (the bearer of the heavenly Ganga, 
i. e. the Milky Way), Nilakantha (the blue-necked), Kirata-Murti 
(the jungle-dweller), Gajasamhara-Murti (slayer of the elephant 
demon), Dakshina-Murti (the teacher of Southern India), Bhairava 
(the terrible), Mahakala (the great black one), Mrityunjaya (con- 
queror of death), Yogisvara (Lord of the Yogis), Kankali-Murli 
(magician), Bhikshatana-Murti (beggar), Rudra (shouter), Virab- 
hadra (heroic splendour), Lakulisha (young ascetic with a staff in 
his hand), Linga (male organ). MAHADEVI (THE GREAT GOD 
DESS): see under F, Saktism, BOTH AS DIVINE PAIR: Uma-Sahita 
(Standing, Cat. 290), Uma-Mahesvara (seated), Kalyanasundara 
(the happy and beautifui), Somaskanda (with Uma, the same as 
Mahadevi and Skanda). THEIR CHILDREN: Ganesha (Ganapati, 
Vinayaka, Cat. 274; 300) the elephant god and Karttikeya 
(Skanda, Kumara, Subrahmanya) the war god (Cat. 116). 
F. SAKTISM (CULT OF SAKTI, THE FEMALE POWER OF GOD, 
THE WORLD MOTHER); Mahadevi (great goddess), Mahesvari 
(great mistress), Mahamata (great mother), Ambika (mother), 
Bhavani, Bhuvanesvari (mistress of the World), Maha-Lakshmi, 
Rajrajesvari, Parvati (mountain goddess), Kumari (virgin), Gauri 
(the shining one), Kamakshi (the loving-eyed), Durga (virgin), 
Mahishamardini (Durga as the slayer of the butfalo demon, war 
godess; Cat. 195; 272), Kali (the black one), Bhairavi (the ter 
rible), Camunda (goddess of death), Yogesvari (mistress of the 
Yoga-Tantra), Minakshi (the fish-eyed one, the unblinking one, 
the quiet one; Princess ol Madurai), Yoni (female organ), Yantra 
(Hexagram); further, the seven or eight ”mothers (Matrika), the 
nine Durgas, the 64 Yoginis and 81 Dakinis, all bloodthirsty and 
fearsome goddesses.
	        

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