later Cola period and under fhe Pandyas (thirleenth Century) 
they did not dare to alter the inner shrine because of its extreme 
holiness, but enclosed it with new shrines, enclosing walls and 
gate-towers, and the sculpture became elegant again, if still 
Atter the Mohammedan Invasion the Emperors of Vijayanagar 
began a massive building programme. The temples vanished 
behind still higher walls and gate-towers, the courtyards were 
covered in and became halls. The pillars were replaced by 
clustered columns and complicated pilasters covered with reliefs 
of prancing beasts and mounfed men. The framework of building 
became mulfi-storied. The wealth of sculpture is inexpressible, but 
the classical mediaeval tradition dissolves more and more into 
a most lively populär style. Painting, too, goes over to this 
populär style between the fourteenth and sixteenth Century. 
Somewhat later, a similar renaissance began in the re-liberated 
Hindu States of norfhern India, but died out in the seventeenth 
Century; in the eighteenth, the Marathas attempted a similar 
revival of mediaeval arf. 
Islamic art in the thirteenth Century was an offshoot of the richly- 
decorated Samanadic-saljuq art of Persia and Turkistan. ln the 
fourteenth a native style developed independent of Iran, cha- 
racterised by a fortress style, inclined walls and inlays of 
coloured stone slabs. ln the fifteenth local slyles appeared, partly 
adapted from Hindu arf (Kashmir, Gujarat, Bengal), partly 
inspired by new fashions from Persia and Turkistan (Delhi, 
Jaunpur, Malwa, Deccan), again with richly-cut Ornament and 
also glazed tiles. We still, however, know exceptionally little 
about the small-scale art of this period, and the Situation only 
changes since the late sixteenth Century. After the greaf vicfory 
over Vijayanagar in 1565 a new taste appeared in the Sultanates 
of the Deccan, semi Hindu in form and feeling but varied by 
influences from Arabia and Turkey. Painting, open to influences 
from Mughal art, late Persia and Europe, was characterised by 
a rhythmic line, a romanlic mood and a wealth of gilding. 
Applied arf (Cat. 688; 693), semi-Hindu in style, loved elaborately 
incised gold and gilding, ivory, and stuffs (pintados) painfed 
with flowers or figures. 
The Great Mughal Emperors were the first to infroduce the Safa- 
vidic art of Persia, with its architecfure of many-coloured glazed 
tiles and onion-shaped domes, its miniatures recalüng Chinese 
calligraphy, and brocades woven with large flowers. The Emperor 
Akbar (1556—1605) attempted to develop a syncrefist style 
comprising elemenfs not only of the Persian, but also of all 
Indian Islamic, even Hindu (Rajpuf) and European styles of his 
time. The buildings, generally in red sandstone, fused Persian 
vaulting and domes with Hindu balconies, roofs, columns, etc., 
covered with mulfi-coloured Indo-Islamic and Persian ornamen- 
tation. The miniature paintings (Cat. 352 b to 366) remain faithful 
to fhe Safavidic-Persian bird's-eye perspective but enrich ii 
with figures in the Rajput style and a European naturalism. This 
loving study of nature reached its peak under Akbar's son 
Jahangir (1605—1627). An Imperial style first developed under 
Shahjahan (1628—1658), exceptionally harmonious, the buildings 
generally strictly symmetrical in white marble inlaid with precious 
stones, the forms from Persian, Bengal and fhe Deccan, the 
painting a mixfure of Rajpuf composition and European detaiied 
technique, textiles in fragile white, gold and pasfel colours, 
applied arf preferring jade, silver, crystal, etc., with decoration 
dominated by flowers from Kashmir (tulips, narcissi, saffron, etc.). 
In fhe troubied period which followed the building technique 
became cheap (painted marble and stucco), the forms baroque 
(the rhythm rounded and dynamically increased), the ornamen- 
fation cloying and restless, the colours garish. Painting became 
romantic and stylised, mainly preoccupied with harem scenes. In 
the field of applied arf appeared the Kashmir shawl, rieh applique 
and tinsel work, iassels and fringes, long-poinfed shoes, enormous 
At the same time a new Hindu art came into being in the Hindu 
States now owing tribute to the Great Mughal Emperors, es- 
pecially in Rajputana and the Himalayas. If originated from 
mediaeval Hindu art, but had been simplified to the maximum 
and then freely re-casf. The early Rajput architecfure (fourteenth 
to seventeenth Century) is an asymmetric mixture of Islamic 
arches and vaulting with plain Hindu columns, beams and roofs. 
Sculpture and painting, originating in populär art, represented 
figures in strict profile (as in ancient Egypt) and arranged them 
in ranks; fhe background is only hinted at, the colours are bright, 
the feeling expressionist. 
In the seventeenth Century the Rajputs fook over much from 
Mughal art; in the early eighteenth Century Rajput style becarne 
a Mughal provincial style, but then Rajput art again went its 
own way, the Mughal architecfure was re-interpreted as asym- 
metrical, picked out with figure sculptures and paintings. The 
painting replaced Mughal naturalism with flowing lines and 
strongly contrasting colours, and Mughal realism by a romanti-


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