times even decorafed with precious sfones. ln addition, bed- 
spreads, Wedding clofhs, and so on, offen richly embroidered 
(phulkari, kasida-work), woven and tuffed carpefs (imporfed by 
the Mohammedans). Sfifched clofhing generally usual with men 
of Ihe upper dass and all Mohammedans. 
Arfistic Development 
Many people regard Sand, ofhers fhe Gupta period, ofhers the 
Hindu Middle 'Ages, others again, fhe Mughal period as fhe clas 
sic age of Indian art. ln fad fhere was a permanent develop 
ment, in theory not infrequently bound by tradition but never- 
theless always producing something new and unique. Even the 
Middle Ages are no exception; even if its forms and types were 
fixed, they were worked out with increasing richness in ever 
newer combinations until finally this richness diverfed the char- 
acter of the art along new channels. 
The Indus culture began with the still quite rustic style of living, 
the "Amri culture”, developed to cities of worid imporfance, and 
then languished, forced onto the defensive against the betfer- 
armed Aryan conquerors. Its pictorial art (Cat. 1—12; 42—53), 
only known from small works, reveals a vivid feeling much more 
highly developed than in Ihe Contemporary ancient East. We 
still know very little of the history of its style. 
The early Aryan period, known to us only from literary sources, 
was a culture in ancient style, steeped in magic, belonging fo 
the peasants and later to the nobilily. The earliest sfone monu- 
ments from the time of the Maurya Emperors (fourfh fo second 
Century B. C.) were evidently under the influence of late Achae- 
menid Persian and to a certain extent of early Hellenistic art 
(lion Capital at Sarnath, Greek palm-leaves, examples of terra- 
cotta); but the Processing of these foreign influences was highly 
independent and conformed to fhe native tradition which, espe- 
cially in the Yaksha sfatues, soon gained the upper hand. Ex- 
cept the lion figures, all pictorial represenfations from Ashokas' 
period were thoroughly Indian in spirit. The most lively terra- 
coltas (Cat. 54—63) show an offen still highly barbarous culture, 
with fanfastic headdresses. This populär art was Ihe only defer- 
mining factor under the Sunga, Kanva and Satavahana Em 
perors. The timber buildings have complicated if obvious shapes, 
sculpture at Bharhut (Cat. 64—73) has not yet escaped from the 
block; it has neifher rounded surfaces nor free heads, arms or 
legs, and its expression is dull, magic for the peasant. Freedom 
is achieved in fhe Sanci (Cat. 75—81) reliefs. Although the timber 
style is still imitafed Ihe result is light and elegant, even in 
stone, the figures move easily, the worid is a miracle full of new 
discoveries. The numerous works in terracofta from this period 
(Cat. 84—101) are capfivating in the richness of their subjects, 
fheir loving observation of lile and naive structure. Further de 
velopment was completed in fhe Deccan, profected from foreign 
conquerors and wealthy through its trade with Rome. In the be- 
ginning art in the Deccan was merely a clumsy echo of the 
Sunga work, but by the first Century A. D. its cave femples and 
Stupa reliefs were overtaking the north. The architecture became 
richer and richer, the fa^ades more beautifui, the columns more 
refined, and balusfrades and balconies were introduced. Pictorial 
art, still dull and sfiff at Bhaja, became free and healthy at 
Karle, Nasik, Kanheri and so on, or in fhe earliest frescoes of 
Ajanta. The marble Stupas of Amaravafi and Jaggayepefa (sec 
ond to third Century A. D.) (Cat. 144) on the east coast were 
tower-like buildings on high terraces, covered over and over 
with reliefs and surrounded by equally rieh sfone fences. Their 
reliefs, perspective scenes of substantial depth, reveal an elegant 
fown-dwelling society, slender figures of boundless grace massed 
in complicated groups. The early Indian Buddhist style finally 
dissolved into Ihe decorative, highly erotic lkshvaku style of 
In the north, however, contact with fhe Greeks and the Indo- 
Parthians and Kushanas, who were dependent on Graeco-Roman 
art, had brought a new development. Even Ihough remains of 
Greek femples were found in Bactria (northern Afghanistan), all 
we know of the Indo-Greeks are coins, at first of high quality but 
then rapidly degenerating. Then the immigralion of Hellenistic 
mastercraftsmen and the importation of Roman luxury goods 
brought a fresh flowering, first at Taxila, then in Gandhara (the 
Svat volley and the Peshawar plain), finally around and beyond 
Kabul and in eastern Turkistan. The architecture shows a stränge 
Penetration of Shunga-Indian and Hellenistic forms. Pictorial art 
(Cat. 130—143) is an adaption of Greek types for Indian gods 
and legends, sometimes really great masterpieces but generally 
fhe worst type of provincial art. Here too development follows 
fhe usual course, from simple buildings and shallow, plain reliefs 
to baroque Creations, laden with decoration, done in high relief 
and sfrongly shadowed. The late works of this style in the fifth 
Century (particularly Hadda) recall Pergamon on the one hand 
and Gothic art on the other — separated from both by five


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